Two IgG1, kappa monoclonal antibodies (Mab) against actin have been obtained from a fusion in which chicken gizzard actin was used as the immunogen. One Mab, designated B4, shows a preferential reactivity toward enteric smooth muscle actin but also cross-reacts with skeletal, cardiac, and aorta actins on the basis of immunoblots, ELISA assays, and indirect immunofluorescence. However, this antibody does not react with either cytoplasmic actin in any of these assay systems. A second Mab, designated C4, reacts with all six known vertebrate isoactins as well as Dictyostelium discoideum and Physarum polycephalum actins. Thus B4 Mab appears to react with an epitope that is at least partially shared among the muscle actins but not found in cytoplasmic actins, while C4 Mab binds to an antigenic determinant that has been highly conserved among the actins. The binding sites of both Mabs on skeletal actin overlap that of pancreatic DNase I. Both antibodies bind a SV8 proteolytic product comprising the amino-terminal two-thirds of the actin molecule, and their epitopes appear to overlap since C4 can compete for the binding of B4 to skeletal actin. Neither antibody is able to prevent actin polymerization.