Adiponectin is produced predominantly by adipocytes and plays an important role in metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis through its insulin-sensitizing actions and anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. Recently, it has been observed that lower levels of adiponectin can substantially increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease in patients who are obese. Circulating adiponectin levels are inversely related to the inflammatory process, oxidative stress, and metabolic dysregulation. Intensive lifestyle modifications and pharmacologic agents, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ or α agonists, some statins, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers, some calcium channel blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor blockers, new β-blockers, and several natural compounds can increase adiponectin levels and suppress or prevent disease initiation or progression, respectively, in cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Therefore, it is important for investigators to have a thorough understanding of the interventions that can modulate adiponectin. Such knowledge may lead to new therapeutic approaches for diseases such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. This review focuses on recent updates regarding therapeutic interventions that might modulate adiponectin.
Keywords: Adiponectin; Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular disease; Insulin resistance; Obesity.
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