Particle-induced osteolysis is not accompanied by systemic remodeling but is reflected by systemic bone biomarkers

J Orthop Res. 2014 Jul;32(7):967-73. doi: 10.1002/jor.22607. Epub 2014 Mar 6.


Particle-induced osteolysis is caused by an imbalance in bone resorption and formation, often leading to loss of implant fixation. Bone remodeling biomarkers may be useful for identification of osteolysis and studying pathogenesis, but interpretation of biomarker data could be confounded if local osteolysis engenders systemic bone remodeling. Our goal was to determine if remote bone remodeling contributes to biomarker levels. Serum concentrations of eight biomarkers and bone remodeling rates at local (femur), contiguous (tibia), and remote (humerus and lumbar vertebra) sites were evaluated in a rat model of particle-induced osteolysis. Serum CTX-1, cathepsin K, PINP, and OPG were elevated and osteocalcin was suppressed in the osteolytic group, but RANKL, TRAP 5b, and sclerostin were not affected at the termination of the study at 12 weeks. The one marker tested longitudinally (CTX-1) was elevated by 3 weeks. We found increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation locally, subtle differences in contiguous sites, but no differences remotely at 12 weeks. Thus, the skeletal response to local particle challenge was not systemic, implying that the observed differences in serum biomarker levels reflect differences in local remodeling.

Keywords: aseptic loosening; biomarkers; bone remodeling; implant fixation; osteolysis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Bone Remodeling*
  • Bone Resorption
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism*
  • Femur / pathology
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Humerus / pathology
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology
  • Male
  • Osteolysis / blood*
  • Osteolysis / diagnosis
  • Osteolysis / etiology
  • Prostheses and Implants
  • Prosthesis Failure
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Tibia / pathology
  • Titanium / chemistry*
  • X-Ray Microtomography


  • Biomarkers
  • Titanium