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Roles of FGFs as Adipokines in Adipose Tissue Development, Remodeling, and Metabolism

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Roles of FGFs as Adipokines in Adipose Tissue Development, Remodeling, and Metabolism

Hiroya Ohta et al. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne).

Abstract

White and brown adipose tissues (BATs), which store and burn lipids, respectively, play critical roles in energy homeostasis. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are signaling proteins with diverse functions in development, metabolism, and neural function. Among 22 FGFs, FGF1, FGF10, and FGF21 play roles as adipokines, adipocyte-secreted proteins, in the development and function of white and BATs. FGF1 is a critical transducer in white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-FGF1 axis is critical for energy homeostasis. FGF10 is essential for embryonic white adipocyte development. FGF21 activates BAT in response to cold exposure. FGF21 also stimulates the accumulation of brown-like cells in WAT during cold exposure and is an upstream effector of adiponectin, which controls systemic energy metabolism. These findings provide new insights into the roles of FGF signaling in white and BATs and potential therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders.

Keywords: FGF; adipocyte; adipokine; development; metabolism; remodeling.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Evolutionary relationships within the Fgf gene family by phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis shows that 22 Fgf genes can be arranged into seven subfamilies containing two to four members each. Branch lengths are proportional to the evolutionary distance between each gene (5).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Action mechanisms of FGF10 and FGF21. (A) FGF10 acts on white preadipocytes in an autocrine/paracrine manner. The possible mechanisms of FGF10-induced cell proliferation and adipogenesis in white preadipocytes are shown (14). (B) FGF21 acts on white adipocytes in an autocrine/paracrine manner. The possible mechanism of FGF21-induced adiponectin production in white adipocytes is shown (25).

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