"Indium lung" is a new occupational lung disease. The global demand for indium, the major material used in manufacturing flat-screen display panels, has skyrocketed since the 1990s (Japan comprises 85% of the worldwide demand). The first case was reported in Japan in 2003, followed by seven cases (interstitial pneumonia and emphysema) in Japan. Two pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) cases in the USA followed in 2011. Indium lung has been described as interstitial pneumonia, pneumothorax, emphysema, and PAP. In 2013, The Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare issued an "Ordinance on the Prevention of Hazards Due to Specified Chemical Substances" requiring employers to provide regular health checks for employees and measurements of work environment concentrations of respirable indium dust.