Trajectories of lung function during childhood

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 May 1;189(9):1101-9. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201309-1700OC.


Rationale: Developmental patterns of lung function during childhood may have major implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of respiratory disease throughout life.

Objectives: To explore longitudinal trajectories of lung function during childhood and factors associated with lung function decline.

Methods: In a population-based birth cohort, specific airway resistance (sRaw) was assessed at age 3 (n = 560), 5 (n = 829), 8 (n = 786), and 11 years (n = 644). Based on prospective data (questionnaires, skin tests, IgE), children were assigned to wheeze phenotypes (no wheezing, transient, late-onset, and persistent) and atopy phenotypes (no atopy, dust mite, non-dust mite, multiple early, and multiple late). We used longitudinal linear mixed models to determine predictors of change in sRaw over time.

Measurements and main results: Contrary to the assumption that sRaw is independent of age and sex, boys had higher sRaw than girls (mean difference, 0.080; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.049-0.111; P < 0.001) and a higher rate of increase over time. For girls, sRaw increased by 0.017 kPa ⋅ s(-1) per year (95% CI, 0.011-0.023). In boys this increase was significantly greater (P = 0.012; mean between-sex difference, 0.011 kPa ⋅ s(-1); 95% CI, 0.003-0.019). Children with persistent wheeze (but not other wheeze phenotypes) had a significantly greater rate of deterioration in sRaw over time compared with never wheezers (P = 0.009). Similarly, children with multiple early, but not other atopy phenotypes had significantly poorer lung function than those without atopy (mean difference, 0.116 kPa ⋅ s(-1); 95% CI, 0.065-0.168; P < 0.001). sRaw increased progressively with the increasing number of asthma exacerbations.

Conclusions: Children with persistent wheeze, frequent asthma exacerbations, and multiple early atopy have diminished lung function throughout childhood, and are at risk of a progressive loss of lung function from age 3 to 11 years. These effects are more marked in boys.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Age Distribution
  • Airway Resistance / physiology*
  • Asthma / drug therapy
  • Asthma / physiopathology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Logistic Models
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Lung / physiology
  • Lung / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Phenotype
  • Plethysmography / methods
  • Respiratory Hypersensitivity / diagnosis
  • Respiratory Sounds
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / epidemiology
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / etiology
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Tidal Volume / physiology*
  • Time


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones