Nephroprotective effect of astaxanthin against trivalent inorganic arsenic-induced renal injury in wistar rats

Nutr Res Pract. 2014 Feb;8(1):46-53. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2014.8.1.46. Epub 2014 Jan 29.


Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a toxic metalloid found ubiquitously in the environment. In humans, exposure to iAs can result in toxicity and cause toxicological manifestations. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been used in the treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia. The kidney is the critical target organ of trivalent inorganic As (iAs(III)) toxicity. We examine if oral administration of astaxanthin (AST) has protective effects on nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by As2O3 exposure (via intraperitoneal injection) in rats. Markers of renal function, histopathological changes, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase, sulfydryl, oxidative stress, and As accumulation in kidneys were evaluated as indicators of As2O3 exposure. AST showed a significant protective effect against As2O3-induced nephrotoxicity. These results suggest that the mechanisms of action, by which AST reduces nephrotoxicity, may include antioxidant protection against oxidative injury and reduction of As accumulation. These findings might be of therapeutic benefit in humans or animals suffering from exposure to iAs(III) from natural sources or cancer therapy.

Keywords: Astaxanthin; arsenic accumulation; nephrotoxicity; oxidative stress; trivalent inorganic arsenic.