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Review
. 2014 Apr;49(5):513-24.
doi: 10.3109/10826084.2014.891845.

Mindfulness-based Treatment to Prevent Addictive Behavior Relapse: Theoretical Models and Hypothesized Mechanisms of Change

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Free PMC article
Review

Mindfulness-based Treatment to Prevent Addictive Behavior Relapse: Theoretical Models and Hypothesized Mechanisms of Change

Katie Witkiewitz et al. Subst Use Misuse. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Mindfulness-based treatments are growing in popularity among addiction treatment providers, and several studies suggest the efficacy of incorporating mindfulness practices into the treatment of addiction, including the treatment of substance use disorders and behavioral addictions (i.e., gambling). The current paper provides a review of theoretical models of mindfulness in the treatment of addiction and several hypothesized mechanisms of change. We provide an overview of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), including session content, treatment targets, and client feedback from participants who have received MBRP in the context of empirical studies. Future research directions regarding operationalization and measurement, identifying factors that moderate treatment effects, and protocol adaptations for specific populations are discussed.

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the article.

This research was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Grant R01 DA025764-01A1 (G. Alan Marlatt and Sarah Bowen, Principal Investigators).

Figures

FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1
Hypothesized mechanisms of mindfulness training in reducing risk of high-risk situations and interrupting the dynamic process of relapse. Solid black arrows indicate the hypothesized direct effects of mindfulness on situational factors, phasic risk factors, and substance use. Dashed arrows indicate the dynamic process of relapse from high-risk situation to substance use, with “X” indicating the connections that can be blocked by mindfulness training.

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