Aim: To obtain data on the safety and clinical impact of managing infants with bronchiolitis on the ward with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) treatment.
Methods: A prospective pilot study was conducted of 61 infants aged <12 months with bronchiolitis and oxygen requirement presenting to the emergency department. HFNC was commenced at 2 L/kg/min, and fraction of inspired oxygen was titrated to oxygen saturation > 94%. A standard-treatment group (n = 33) managed with standard low-flow subnasal oxygen during the same time period was retrospectively identified.
Results: Admission demographics, heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were similar in test and standard-treatment groups. Responders and non-responders to HFNC were identified within 60 min of treatment. Non-responders to HFNC requiring paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission showed no change in HR and RR, whereas responders showed decreases in HR and RR (P < 0.02). Patients receiving HFNC were four times less likely to need PICU admission than the standard treatment group (OR 4.086, 95%CI 1.0-8.2; P = 0.043). No adverse events such as pneumothorax, bradycardia, bradypnoea, emergency intubation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation were observed. No patients admitted to the PICU required intubation.
Conclusions: HFNC treatment in the paediatric ward is safe. Non-responders requiring PICU admission can be identified within the first hour of HFNC treatment by monitoring HR and RR. It is feasible to undertake a randomised controlled trial based on this pilot with the aim of decreasing PICU admissions.
Keywords: bronchiolitis; high-flow nasal cannula; infant.
© 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).