Fut2 genotype is a risk factor for dominant stenosis and biliary candida infections in primary sclerosing cholangitis

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Apr;39(8):873-82. doi: 10.1111/apt.12663. Epub 2014 Feb 24.


Background: A recent genome-wide association study identified the FUT2 secretor status and genotype defined by the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs601338 as potential genetic risk factor in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), which significantly influences biliary bacterial composition.

Aim: To determine the impact of the rs601338-FUT2 genotype on frequency of biliary infections, development of dominant stenosis and liver-transplantation-free survival in patients with PSC.

Methods: Cohort study of 215 patients with PSC treated at our tertiary care centre with respect to their rs601338-FUT2 genotype. Results of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and bile culture were analysed; 639 biliary samples were obtained, cultured and subjected to microbial analysis. Clinical and laboratory data were analysed using chart reviews.

Results: For the rs601338-FUT2 genotype, 69 patients (32.1%) were found to be wildtype (GG), 97 (45.1%) patients were heterozygous (AG) and 49 patients (22.8%) were homozygous-mutated (AA). In addition to alterations in the bacterial pattern, especially in heterozygous carriers, patients with mutated alleles had a marked increase in the frequency of biliary Candida infections (P = 0.025). Further, patients with mutated alleles showed an increased frequency of episodes of cholangitis (P = 0.0025), development of dominant stenosis (P < 0.002) and a reduced actuarial transplantation-free survival (P = 0.044). Levels of biliary Ca19-9 were significantly elevated in the homozygous-mutated patients.

Conclusions: The rs601338-FUT2 genotype is strongly associated with episodes of cholangitis, fungobilia and the incidence of dominant stenosis, which are three clinical hallmarks of PSC; FUT2 is thus an important genetic risk factor for host-microbial diversity and disease progression in PSC.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alleles
  • Bile / microbiology
  • Candida / isolation & purification*
  • Candidiasis / epidemiology*
  • Candidiasis / etiology
  • Cholangiography / methods
  • Cholangitis, Sclerosing / complications*
  • Cholangitis, Sclerosing / genetics
  • Cholangitis, Sclerosing / microbiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Constriction, Pathologic / epidemiology*
  • Constriction, Pathologic / etiology
  • Constriction, Pathologic / genetics
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Fucosyltransferases / genetics*
  • Genotype
  • Heterozygote
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors


  • Fucosyltransferases
  • galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase