Estimating risks of de novo kidney diseases after living kidney donation

Am J Transplant. 2014 Mar;14(3):538-44. doi: 10.1111/ajt.12625.

Abstract

De novo post donation renal diseases, such as glomerulonephritis or diabetic nephropathy, are infrequent and distinct from the loss of GFR at donation that all living kidney donors experience. Medical findings that increase risks of disease (e.g. microscopic hematuria,borderline hemoglobin A1C) often prompt donor refusal by centers. These risk factors are part of more comprehensive risks of low GFR and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from kidney diseases in the general population that are equally relevant. Such data profile the ages of onset, rates of progression, prevalence and severity of loss of GFR from generically characterized kidney diseases. Kidney diseases typically begin in middle age and take decades to reach ESRD, at a median age of 64. Diabetes produces about half of yearly ESRD and even more lifetime near-ESRD. Such data predict that (1) 10- to 15-year studies will not capture the lifetime risks of post donation ESRD; (2)normal young donors are at demonstrably higher risk than normal older candidates; (3) low-normal predonation GFRs become risk factors for ESRD when kidney diseases arise and (4) donor nephrectomy always increases individual risk. Such population-based risk data apply to all donor candidates and should be used to make acceptance standards and counseling more uniform and defensible.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Kidney / physiopathology*
  • Kidney Diseases / etiology*
  • Kidney Function Tests
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Living Donors*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nephrectomy / adverse effects*
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Tissue and Organ Harvesting / adverse effects*
  • Young Adult