We evaluated the protective efficacy of the polyphenolic fraction from virgin coconut oil (PV) against adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The activities of inflammatory, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation were estimated. PV showed high percentage of edema inhibition at a dose of 80mg/kg on 21st day of adjuvant arthritis and is non toxic. The expression of inflammatory genes such as COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were decreased by treatment with PV. Antioxidant enzymes were increased and on treatment with PV. The increased level of total WBC count and C-reactive protein in the arthritic animals was reduced in PV treated rats. Synovial cytology showed that inflammatory cells and reactive mesothelial cells were suppressed by PV. Histopathology of paw tissue showed less edema formation and cellular infiltration on supplementation with PV. Thus the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of PV on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats and the mechanism behind this action is due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory; Antioxidant; Polyphenols; Virgin coconut oil.
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