Tuberculosis: Clinical Trials and New Drug Regimens

Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2014 May;20(3):280-6. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000045.

Abstract

Purpose of review: Recent advances in the development of new drugs and regimens provide hope that well tolerated, effective, and shorter-duration treatments for tuberculosis (TB) will become available. This review covers the recent trials of new TB drugs and regimens.

Recent findings: Moxifloxacin and levofloxacin have equally good efficacy and safety in the early phase of treatment of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), and linezolid has the potential to cure refractory cases of MDR-TB. Bedaquiline and delamanid may be the best drug candidates for enhancing treatment options for MDR-TB. New chemicals, such as sutezolid, AZD5847, PA-824, SQ109, and BTZ043, show potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Late-generation fluoroquinolones in combination with the first-line and second-line anti-TB drugs have been used to shorten the treatment duration in drug-susceptible and MDR-TB.

Summary: New drugs and new combination regimens in clinical trials are expected to increase therapeutic efficacy and shorten treatment duration in both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acetamides / pharmacology
  • Adamantane / analogs & derivatives
  • Adamantane / pharmacology
  • Antitubercular Agents / pharmacology*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diarylquinolines / pharmacology
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Drug Design
  • Ethylenediamines / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Fluoroquinolones / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Levofloxacin / pharmacology
  • Linezolid
  • Male
  • Moxifloxacin
  • Nitroimidazoles / pharmacology
  • Oxazoles / pharmacology
  • Oxazolidinones / pharmacology
  • Spiro Compounds / pharmacology
  • Thiazines / pharmacology
  • Tuberculosis / drug therapy*
  • Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant / drug therapy

Substances

  • 2-(2-methyl-1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro(4.5)dec-8-yl)-8-nitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-4H-1,3-benzothiazin-4-one
  • Acetamides
  • Antitubercular Agents
  • Diarylquinolines
  • Ethylenediamines
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • N-geranyl-N'-(2-adamantyl)ethane-1,2-diamine
  • Nitroimidazoles
  • OPC-67683
  • Oxazoles
  • Oxazolidinones
  • Spiro Compounds
  • Thiazines
  • pretomanid
  • Levofloxacin
  • bedaquiline
  • posizolid
  • Linezolid
  • Adamantane
  • Moxifloxacin