Insights into the pathophysiology of catch-up compared with non-catch-up growth in children born small for gestational age: an integrated analysis of metabolic and transcriptomic data

Pharmacogenomics J. 2014 Aug;14(4):376-84. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2014.4. Epub 2014 Mar 11.


Small for gestational age (SGA) children exhibiting catch-up (CU) growth have a greater risk of cardiometabolic diseases in later life compared with non-catch-up (NCU) SGA children. The aim of this study was to establish differences in metabolism and gene expression profiles between CU and NCU at age 4-9 years. CU children (n=22) had greater height, weight and body mass index standard deviation scores along with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and fasting glucose levels but lower adiponectin values than NCU children (n=11; all P<0.05). Metabolic profiling demonstrated a fourfold decrease of urine myo-inositol in CU compared with NCU (P<0.05). There were 1558 genes differentially expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells between the groups (P<0.05). Integrated analysis of data identified myo-inositol related to gene clusters associated with an increase in insulin, growth factor and IGF-I signalling in CU children (P<0.05). Metabolic and transcriptomic profiles in CU SGA children showed changes that may relate to cardiometabolic risk.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Small for Gestational Age / growth & development*
  • Infant, Small for Gestational Age / metabolism
  • Male
  • Metabolomics
  • Transcriptome*


  • Biomarkers