Background: Epinephrine is a component of all resuscitation algorithms. Vasopressin is a pulmonary vasodilator and systemic vasopressor. We investigated the effect of epinephrine vs. vasopressin on survival and hemodynamics after neonatal porcine cardiac arrest (CA).
Methods: A 4-min asphyxial CA was induced, after which cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was commenced. Animals were randomized to low- (LDE: 0.01 mg/kg) or high-dose epinephrine (HDE: 0.03 mg/kg), low- (LDV: 0.2 U/kg) or high-dose vasopressin (HDV: 0.4 U/kg), or control (saline). Clinical and echocardiography indexes were monitored.
Results: Sixty-nine animals were randomized. Survival was greater in HDV (n = 8 (89%); P < 0.05 ANOVA) vs. control (n = 7 (43%)) and LDE (n = 5 (36%)) but not vs. HDE (n = 7 (64%)) or LDV (n = 6 (75%)). Animals resuscitated with LDE required more shocks (2.5 (interquartile range: 2-6); P < 0.05) and higher doses of energy (15 J (interquartile range: 10-20); P < 0.05). Left ventricular output was comparable between groups, but a greater increase in superior vena caval flow was seen after HDV (P < 0.001 vs. control, LDE, and HDE). Plasma troponin was greatest in the HDE group (P < 0.05 vs. control and HDV).
Conclusion: Vasopressin results in improved survival, lower postresuscitation troponin, and less hemodynamic compromise after CA in newborn piglets. Vasopressin may be a candidate for testing in human neonates.