A TAL effector repeat architecture for frameshift binding

Nat Commun. 2014 Mar 11;5:3447. doi: 10.1038/ncomms4447.

Abstract

Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are important Xanthomonas virulence factors that bind DNA via a unique tandem 34-amino-acid repeat domain to induce expression of plant genes. So far, TALE repeats are described to bind as a consecutive array to a consecutive DNA sequence, in which each repeat independently recognizes a single DNA base. This modular protein architecture enables the design of any desired DNA-binding specificity for biotechnology applications. Here we report that natural TALE repeats of unusual amino-acid sequence length break the strict one repeat-to-one base pair binding mode and introduce a local flexibility to TALE-DNA binding. This flexibility allows TALEs and TALE nucleases to recognize target sequence variants with single nucleotide deletions. The flexibility also allows TALEs to activate transcription at allelic promoters that otherwise confer resistance to the host plant.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites / genetics
  • Blotting, Western
  • DNA, Plant / genetics
  • DNA, Plant / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Disease Resistance / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Oryza / genetics
  • Oryza / metabolism
  • Oryza / microbiology
  • Plant Diseases / genetics
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Protein Binding
  • Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid / genetics
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Trans-Activators / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • Virulence / genetics
  • Virulence Factors / genetics
  • Virulence Factors / metabolism*
  • Xanthomonas / genetics
  • Xanthomonas / metabolism
  • Xanthomonas / pathogenicity

Substances

  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA, Plant
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Plant Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Virulence Factors