Tenofovir, emtricitabine, and darunavir/ritonavir pharmacokinetics in an HIV-infected patient after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

Ann Pharmacother. 2014 Jun;48(6):816-9. doi: 10.1177/1060028014525034. Epub 2014 Mar 10.


Objective: To determine antiretroviral (ARV) pharmacokinetics in a patient who previously underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery.

Case summary: We describe a 38-year-old Hispanic man who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 11 months following RYGB surgery. When the patient presented for care of his HIV, his HIV-1 RNA was 146 138 copies/mL (5.20 log) and his CD4 T cell count was 320 cells/mm(3) (25%). He was initiated on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) 300 mg once daily, emtricitabine (FTC) 200 mg once daily, and darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) 600/100 mg twice daily. ARV concentrations were similar to historical data. Six months following ARV initiation, HIV-1 RNA was <48 copies/mL and CD4 count had increased to 562 cells/mm(3) (39%).

Discussion: Bariatric surgery has been successfully performed in obese persons infected with the HIV, but data are limited on ARV drug selection and pharmacokinetics in this group. Optimal suppression of HIV replication requires appropriate concentrations of ARV drugs, and in a patient who has undergone RYGB, this can be challenging not only because of a decreased absorptive surface area but also because of an increased intragastric pH.

Conclusion: We found that once daily TDF/FTC and twice daily DRV/r produced trough concentrations similar to historic data in a patient who previously underwent RYGB with virologic suppression and immunologic recovery.

Keywords: HIV; Roux-en-Y; antiretroviral; darunavir; emtricitabine; gastric bypass; tenofovir.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenine / administration & dosage
  • Adenine / analogs & derivatives
  • Adenine / pharmacokinetics
  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • Darunavir
  • Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage
  • Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives
  • Deoxycytidine / pharmacokinetics
  • Emtricitabine
  • Gastric Bypass*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / metabolism*
  • HIV Infections / surgery*
  • HIV-1
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Organophosphonates / administration & dosage
  • Organophosphonates / pharmacokinetics
  • Ritonavir / administration & dosage
  • Ritonavir / pharmacokinetics
  • Sulfonamides / administration & dosage
  • Sulfonamides / pharmacokinetics
  • Tenofovir


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Organophosphonates
  • Sulfonamides
  • Deoxycytidine
  • Tenofovir
  • Emtricitabine
  • Adenine
  • Ritonavir
  • Darunavir