We studied ten patients with IgM monoclonal gammopathies. Five had M proteins that reacted with myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and five had no recognizable antinerve activity. The neuropathy in the MAG-reactive patients was homogeneous by clinical and laboratory analysis, while the neuropathy in the MAG-nonreactive patients varied considerably. Both groups responded well to immunosuppressive therapy, which lowered the concentration of the serum M protein. The homogeneity of the MAG-reactive patients and their response to sustained lowering of the M protein levels support the concept that the IgM M protein directly damages nerve fibers and is the proximate cause of the polyneuropathy.