Initially cone beam CT was almost exclusively used to perform dental radiology. However, the first generation CBCT systems were later increasingly used to study sinuses, facial and nose fractures, temporomandibular joints etc. 3D-cephalometric head and neck studies became possible once CBCT systems were available that allowed scanning of the complete head. For this purpose a double rotation technique with stitching of the resulting two data sets was needed. CBCT systems on which the rotation could be stopped were needed to perform dynamic swallow or pharyngography studies. The advent of more powerful high-end CBCT systems led the way to temporal bone and skull base imaging. Finally, high-end "supine" CBCT systems using a "gantry" made small joint musculoskeletal imaging possible. These non-dental CBCT studies gradually replaced conventional X-rays and CT/MDCT studies because they allowed imaging with higher resolution, lower radiation dose and less metal artifacts. In this paper the most important non-dental CBCT indications will be discussed.