Objectives: Because angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, the development of antiangiogenic agents is an urgent issue in cancer treatment. Zerumbone, a component of subtropical ginger, has been shown to exhibit anticancer activities in various cancer cells; however, little is known about its biological mechanisms against angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer (PaCa). Here, we evaluated the effects of zerumbone on PaCa angiogenesis.
Methods: The cytotoxicity of zerumbone in PaCa was measured using premix WST-1 cell proliferation assays. The influence of zerumbone on the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin 8 was measured using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Changes in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activities were measured using NF-κB transcription factor assays. We also examined the effects of zerumbone on PaCa-induced angiogenesis using angiogenesis assays.
Results: Zerumbone inhibited mRNA expression and protein secretion of angiogenic factors and NF-κB activity. Tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was enhanced by coculture with PaCa cells, and these enhancements were significantly inhibited by zerumbone treatment.
Conclusions: Zerumbone blocked the PaCa-associated angiogenesis through the inhibition of NF-κB and NF-κB-dependent proangiogenic gene products.