What should we tell prostate cancer patients about (secondary) prevention?

Curr Opin Urol. 2014 May;24(3):318-23. doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000049.


Purpose of review: To briefly summarize the epidemiologic findings of selected lifestyle factors for prostate cancer progression, metastasis, or death, with a focus on behaviors after diagnosis where possible. We conclude by providing guidance on the lifestyle practices that physicians may wish to prioritize for discussion with their patients.

Recent findings: Growing, but still limited, evidence suggests that lifestyle factors after prostate cancer diagnosis may impact prostate-cancer-specific and overall morality. In particular, smoking and obesity may increase the risk of disease progression and mortality, whereas engaging in vigorous physical activity or brisk walking and consuming a diet rich in vegetables (particularly tomato sauce and cruciferous) and vegetable fats may lower the risk.

Summary: Patients should be counseled not to use tobacco products; to engage in daily physical activity; to minimize sedentary behavior; to consume plenty of healthy fats (i.e. fish, nuts, vegetable oils, soybeans, avocados, and flaxseed) and vegetables; to focus on getting nutrients from foods rather than supplements; and to limit refined grains, sugars, processed meat, and high-fat dairy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diet / adverse effects
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Exercise
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control*
  • Obesity / mortality
  • Obesity / therapy
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / secondary
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Protective Factors
  • Risk Factors
  • Risk Reduction Behavior*
  • Secondary Prevention / methods*
  • Sedentary Behavior
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Smoking Prevention
  • Treatment Outcome