A soluble form of the giant cadherin Fat1 is released from pancreatic cancer cells by ADAM10 mediated ectodomain shedding

PLoS One. 2014 Mar 13;9(3):e90461. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090461. eCollection 2014.

Abstract

In pancreatic cancer, there is a clear unmet need to identify new serum markers for either early diagnosis, therapeutic stratification or patient monitoring. Proteomic analysis of tumor cell secretomes is a promising approach to indicate proteins released from tumor cells in vitro. Ectodomain shedding of transmembrane proteins has previously been shown to contribute significant fractions the tumor cell secretomes and to generate valuable serum biomarkers. Here we introduce a soluble form of the giant cadherin Fat1 as a novel biomarker candidate. Fat1 expression and proteolytic processing was analyzed by mass spectrometry and Western blotting using pancreatic cancer cell lines as compared to human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. RNA expression in cancer tissues was assessed by in silico analysis of publically available microarray data. Involvement of ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10) in Fat1 ectodomain shedding was analyzed by chemical inhibition and knockdown experiments. A sandwich ELISA was developed to determine levels of soluble Fat1 in serum samples. In the present report we describe the release of high levels of the ectodomain of Fat1 cadherin into the secretomes of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro, a process that is mediated by ADAM10. We confirm the full-length and processed heterodimeric form of Fat1 expressed on the plasma membrane and also show the p60 C-terminal transmembrane remnant fragment corresponding to the shed ectodomain. Fat1 and its sheddase ADAM10 are overexpressed in pancreatic adenocarcinomas and ectodomain shedding is also recapitulated in vivo leading to increased Fat1 serum levels in some pancreatic cancer patients. We suggest that soluble Fat1 may find an application as a marker for patient monitoring complementing carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). In addition, detailed analysis of the diverse processed protein isoforms of the candidate tumor suppressor Fat1 can also contribute to our understanding of cell biology and tumor behavior.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • ADAM Proteins / metabolism*
  • ADAM10 Protein
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases / metabolism*
  • Cadherins / chemistry
  • Cadherins / metabolism*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • Glycosylation
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Middle Aged
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Protein Multimerization
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Proteomics
  • RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization

Substances

  • Cadherins
  • FAT1 protein, human
  • Membrane Proteins
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases
  • ADAM Proteins
  • ADAM10 Protein
  • ADAM10 protein, human

Grant support

This work was supported by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, NGFN Plus program, 01GS08117 (to MS) and 01GS08118 (to IS-W) and by a grant from the Hunter Translational Cancer Research Unit (to RFT). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.