BP, cardiovascular disease, and death in the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation trial

J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Jul;25(7):1554-62. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2013040435. Epub 2014 Mar 13.


The optimal BP level in kidney transplant recipients remains uncertain. This post hoc analysis of the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) trial cohort assessed associations of BP with a pooled cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcome and with all-cause mortality. In 3474 prevalent kidney transplant patients, mean age was 52±9 years, 63% were men, 76% were white, 20% had a history of CVD, 40% had a history of diabetes mellitus, and the median time since transplant was 4.1 years (25th to 75th percentiles, 1.7-7.4); mean systolic BP was 136±20 mmHg and mean diastolic BP was 79±12 mmHg. There were 497 CVD events and 406 deaths. After adjustment for demographic and transplant characteristics and CVD risk factors, each 20-mmHg increase in baseline systolic BP associated with a 32% increase in subsequent CVD risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.19 to 1.46) and a 13% increase in mortality risk (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.27). Similarly, after adjustment, at diastolic BP levels<70 mmHg, each 10-mmHg decrease in diastolic BP level associated with a 31% increase in CVD risk (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.62) and a 31% increase in mortality risk (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.66). However, at diastolic BP levels>70 mmHg, there was no significant relationship between diastolic BP and outcomes. Higher systolic BP strongly and independently associated with increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality, without evidence of a J shape, whereas only lower levels of diastolic BP associated with increased risk of CVD and death in this trial.

Keywords: blood pressure; cardiovascular disease; kidney transplantation; mortality.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Folic Acid / pharmacology
  • Folic Acid / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / mortality*
  • Hypertension / prevention & control*
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications / mortality*


  • Folic Acid