Cirrhosis and hepatopulmonary syndrome

World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Mar 14;20(10):2586-94. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i10.2586.


Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized as a triad: liver disease, intrapulmonary vascular dilatation and arterial hypoxemia. HPS is reported to be present in 4% to 32% of adult patients with end-stage liver disease and in 9%-20% of children. The pathogenesis of HPS has not been clearly identified. Portal hypertension causes impairment in the perfusion of the bowel and increases the enteral translocation of Gram (-) bacteria and endotoxins. This stimulates the release of vasoactive mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, heme oxygenase-derived carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. Genetic alterations have not been associated with this syndrome yet; however, cytokines and chemokines have been suggested to play a role. Recently, it was reported that cumulated monocytes lead to the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent signaling pathways and pulmonary angiogenesis, which plays an important role in HPS pathogenesis. At present, the most effective and only radical treatment is a liver transplant (LT). Cirrhotic patients who are on the waiting list for an LT have a shorter survival period if they develop HPS. Therefore, it is suggested that all cirrhotic cases should be followed closely for HPS and they should have priority in the waiting list.

Keywords: Cirrhosis; Hepatopulmonary syndrome; Liver transplantation; Pathophysiology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome / etiology*
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome / surgery
  • Humans
  • Liver Cirrhosis / complications*
  • Liver Cirrhosis / diagnosis
  • Liver Cirrhosis / surgery
  • Liver Transplantation
  • Patient Selection
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Waiting Lists