Everolimus (EVR) has inter-individual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability and a narrow therapeutic index. The study objective was to determine whether genetic polymorphisms, co-medications, and/or demographic variables accounted for inter-individual variability in EVR PK in lung transplant recipients (LTxR). LTxR were genotyped for ABCB1 c.1236C>T, ABCB1 c.2677G>T/A, ABCB1 c.3435C>T, CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3, CYP2C8*2/*3/*4, and pregnane X receptor (NR1I2) c.44477T>C, c.63396C>T, c.69789A>G polymorphisms. The primary outcome was the difference in dose-adjusted EVR levels (EVR L/D) between ABCB1 diplotype groups (2 vs. 1 vs. 0 copies of the 1236C/2677G/3435C haplotype). Sixty-five LTxR were included. There was no significant difference in EVR L/D between ABCB1 CGC diplotype groups (CGC/CGC = 2.4 ± 1.1 [n = 9] vs. CGC/XXX = 2.5 ± 1.7 [n = 36] vs. XXX/XXX = 2.7 ± 1.7 ng/mL per mg/d [n = 20]; p = 0.9). CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1B, CYP2C8*3/*4, and NR1I2 polymorphisms were not associated with EVR L/D. EVR L/D was 3.4 ± 1.7 in LTxR receiving diltiazem (DILT) vs. 1.8 ± 1.1 ng/mL per mg/d in LTxR not receiving DILT (p <0.001). Demographic variables, including cystic fibrosis, were not associated with EVR PK. DILT use increased EVR L/D, but selected polymorphisms in ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, and NR1I2 did not affect EVR L/D in LTxR. Genotyping LTxR for these polymorphisms is unlikely to aid clinicians in optimizing EVR therapy.
Keywords: cystic fibrosis; diltiazem; everolimus; lung transplantation; pharmacogenetics.
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.