Background: To investigate the outcomes of hospitalized patients with both de-novo and worsening heart failure (HF) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (HFpEF) (LVEF ≥ 50%), compared to those with reduced LVEF (HFrEF).
Methods and results: We studied 1669 patients (22.6% HFpEF) hospitalized for acute HF in the prospective multi-center nationwide Italian Network on Heart Failure (IN-HF) Outcome Registry. In all patients LVEF was assessed during hospitalization. De-novo HF presentations constituted 49.6% of HFpEF and 43.1% of HFrEF hospitalizations. All-cause mortality during hospitalization was lower in HFpEF than HFrEF (2.9% vs 6.5%, p=0.01), but this mortality difference was not significant at 1 year (19.6% vs 24.4%, p=0.06), even after adjusting for clinical covariates. Similarly, there were no differences in 1-year mortality between HFpEF and HFrEF when compared by cause of death (cardiovascular vs non-cardiovascular) or mode of presentation (worsening HF vs de novo). Rehospitalization rates (all-cause, non-cardiovascular, cardiovascular, HF-related) at 90 days and 1 year were also similar. Mode of presentation influenced rehospitalizations in HFpEF, where those presenting with worsening HFpEF had higher all-cause (36.8% vs 21.6%, p=0.001), cardiovascular (28.1% vs 14.9%, p=0.002), and HF-related (21.1% vs 7.7%, p=0.0003) rehospitalization rates at 1 year compared to those with de novo presentations.
Conclusions: Outcomes at 1 year following hospitalization for HFpEF are as poor as that of HFrEF. A prior history of HF decompensation or hospitalization identifies patients with HFpEF at particularly high risk of recurrent events. These findings may have implications for clinical practice, quality and process improvements and trial design.
Keywords: Acute heart failure; Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; Prognosis; Registry.
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