Objective: In 2011, new guidelines on antibiotic prescription for acute otitis media (AOM) were published in France to decrease the use of third generation cephalosporins that promote the carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli. Our objective was to assess the impact of the 2011 French recommendations on the type of antibiotics prescribed for AOM.
Methods: Fourteen thousand six hundred and sixty-one children, 6 to 24 months of age, presenting with AOM were included in 2 studies, between November 1, 2009 and October 31, 2012. The first one was conducted with the support of 62 private practice pediatricians; the second one was conducted in 7 pediatric emergency departments. Three periods of 1 year each were defined.
Results: Antibiotics were prescribed in 12,471 (85.1%) of cases of AOM during the study period. Amoxicillin prescriptions was multiplied by 25, between the first year (2.6%) and the last year (66.1%). Conversely, prescriptions of cefpodoxime proxetil and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid decreased from 33.6% and 62.0% in the first year to 5.2% and 27.7% in the last year, respectively. This trend was observed in both private practices and in the pediatric emergency departments.
Conclusion: Amoxicillin became the most frequently prescribed antibiotic for AOM in 2012, complying with the 2011 French guidelines, while the proportion of prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics decreased. Our study highlights the importance of guidelines to decrease the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics, a crucial factor in the prevention of antibiotic resistance.
Keywords: Acute otitis media; Antibiotics; Antibiotiques; Otites moyennes aiguës; Pediatric emergency department; Urgences pédiatriques.
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