Ethanolic carbon-11 Chemistry: The Introduction of Green Radiochemistry

Appl Radiat Isot. 2014 Jul;89:125-9. doi: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2014.01.033. Epub 2014 Feb 15.


The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use.

Keywords: Carbon-11; Green chemistry; PET chemistry; Positron emission tomography; Radiopharmaceutical synthesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Carbon Radioisotopes / chemistry*
  • Ethanol / chemistry*
  • Green Chemistry Technology / methods
  • Isotope Labeling / methods
  • Radiochemistry / methods
  • Radiopharmaceuticals / chemical synthesis*
  • Radiopharmaceuticals / chemistry


  • Carbon Radioisotopes
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Ethanol