Ethnopharmacological relevance: The medicinal mushroom Antrodia salmonea has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine and has demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
Materials and methods: In the present study, we examined the anti-tumor activity of the fermented culture broth of Antrodia salmonea (AS) in vitro and in vivo and revealed its underlying molecular mechanism of action.
Results: Treatment of human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells with AS (50-150 μg/mL) significantly reduced cell viability and caused G1 arrest via the inhibition of cell-cycle regulatory proteins, including cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin E, cyclin A, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (p-Rb). Furthermore, AS treatment induced apoptosis, which was associated with DNA fragmentation, followed by a sequence of events, including intracellular ROS generation; mitochondrial dysfunction; Fas ligand activation; cytochrome c release; caspase-3, -8, -9, and PARP activation; and Bcl-2/Bax dysregulation. The results of the in vitro study suggested that AS-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells was mediated by both the mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. Furthermore, we found that AS treatment was effective in delaying tumor incidence in HL-60 xenografted nude mice and reducing tumor burden.
Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report confirming the anti-tumor activity of this potentially beneficial mushroom against human promyelocytic leukemia.
Keywords: Antrodia salmonea; Apoptosis; G(1) cell-cycle arrest; Human promyelocytic leukemia; Xenografted nude mice.
Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.