Paradigms of protein degradation by the proteasome

Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2014 Feb;24:156-64. doi: 10.1016/j.sbi.2014.02.002. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

Abstract

The proteasome is the main proteolytic machine in the cytosol and nucleus of eukaryotic cells where it degrades hundreds of regulatory proteins, removes damaged proteins, and produces peptides that are presented by MHC complexes. New structures of the proteasome particle show how its subunits are arranged and provide insights into how the proteasome is regulated. Proteins are targeted to the proteasome by tags composed of several ubiquitin moieties. The structure of the tags tunes the order in which proteins are degraded. The proteasome itself edits the ubiquitin tags and drugs that interfere in this process can enhance the clearance of toxic proteins from cells. Finally, the proteasome initiates degradation at unstructured regions within its substrates and this step contributes to substrate selection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Models, Molecular
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / chemistry
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / metabolism*
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Proteolysis*
  • Ubiquitin / metabolism
  • Ubiquitination

Substances

  • Proteins
  • Ubiquitin
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex