Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) and E47 EMT factor: novel partners in E-cadherin repression and early metastasis colonization

Oncogene. 2015 Feb 19;34(8):951-64. doi: 10.1038/onc.2014.23. Epub 2014 Mar 17.


Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with increased aggressiveness and acquisition of migratory properties providing tumor cells with the ability to invade into adjacent tissues. Downregulation of E-cadherin, a hallmark of EMT, is mediated by several transcription factors (EMT-TFs) that act also as EMT inducers, among them, Snail1 and the bHLH transcription factor E47. We previously described lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a member of the lysyl oxidase family, as a Snail1 regulator and EMT inducer. Here we show that LOXL2 is also an E47-interacting partner and functionally collaborates in the repression of E-cadherin promoter. Loss and gain of function analyses combined with in vivo studies in syngeneic breast cancer models demonstrate the participation of LOXL2 and E47 in tumor growth and their requirement for lung metastasis. Furthermore, LOXL2 and E47 contribute to early steps of metastatic colonization by cell and noncell autonomous functions regulating the recruitment of bone marrow progenitor cells to the lungs and by direct transcriptional regulation of fibronectin and cytokines TNFα, ANG-1 and GM-CSF. Moreover, fibronectin and GM-CSF proved to be necessary for LOXL2/E47-mediated modulation of tumor growth and lung metastasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Oxidoreductases / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Cadherins / genetics*
  • Cell Movement / genetics
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Dogs
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition / genetics
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Gene Silencing
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / genetics
  • Lung Neoplasms / secondary
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Nude
  • Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics*
  • Transcription Factor 3 / physiology*


  • Cadherins
  • Transcription Factor 3
  • Amino Acid Oxidoreductases
  • Loxl2 protein, mouse