Using peroxidase immunohistochemistry, we examined the distribution of P170, a multidrug transport protein, in normal tissues by use of two different monoclonal antibodies (MAb). MAb MRK16 is a MAb that has been shown to react with an epitope in P170 located on the external face of the plasma membrane of multidrug-resistant human cells. MAb C219 has been shown to react with P170 in many mammalian species, and detects an epitope located on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. Using MRK16, we have previously described the localization of P170 on the bile canalicular face of hepatocytes, the apical surface of proximal tubular cells in kidney, and the surface epithelium in the lower GI tract in normal human tissues. In this work, we report that MRK16 also detects P170 in the capillaries of some human brain samples. A similar pattern was found using MAb C219 in rat tissues. in addition, MAb C219 showed intense localization in selected skeletal muscle fibers and all cardiac muscle fibers in rat and human tissues. ATPase cytochemistry showed that these reactive skeletal muscle fibers were of the type I (slow-twitch) class. Other additional sites of C219 reactivity in rat tissues were found in pancreatic acini, seminal vesicle, and testis. Electrophoretic gel immunoblotting showed two protein bands reactive with MAb C219. In liver, MAb C219 reacted with a approximately 170 KD band. In skeletal and cardiac muscle, MAb C219 reacted with a approximately 200 KD band which migrated in the same position as myosin. This band also reacted with an antibody to skeletal muscle myosin. This result suggests that C219 may crossreact with the heavy chain of muscle myosin in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Because MAb C219 reacts with proteins other than P170, it should be used with caution in studies of multidrug resistance.