A clinical algorithm for wound biofilm identification

J Wound Care. 2014 Mar;23(3):137-8, 140-2. doi: 10.12968/jowc.2014.23.3.137.


Recognition of the existence of biofilm in chronic wounds is increasing among wound care practitioners, and a growing body of evidence indicates that biofilm contributes significantly to wound recalcitrance. While clinical guidelines regarding the involvement of biofilm in human bacterial infections have been proposed, there remains uncertainty and lack of guidance towards biofilm presence in wounds. The intention of this report is to collate knowledge and evidence of the visual and indirect clinical indicators of wound biofilm, and propose an algorithm designed to facilitate clinical recognition of biofilm and subsequent wound management practices.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Bacterial Adhesion
  • Biofilms*
  • Disease Progression
  • Exudates and Transudates
  • Humans
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Wound Infection / microbiology*
  • Wound Infection / therapy*