Effects of umbilical cord milking on the need for packed red blood cell transfusions and early neonatal hemodynamic adaptation in preterm infants born ≤1500 g: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2014 Nov;36(8):e493-8. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000000143.


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of umbilical cord milking (UCM) on the need for packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion and hematologic and hemodynamic parameters in very-low-birth-weight infants.

Methods: The infants were randomized into 2 groups: group 1 (UCM) and group 2 (control). The primary outcome was the number of PRBC transfusions during the first 35 days of life. The secondary outcome measures were the hemodynamic variables during the first 24 hours of life.

Results: A total of 44 infants were included with 22 infants in each group. Two of 21 infants in group 1 and 4 of 21 infants in group 2 received transfusion in the first 3 days of life (P=0.384). The number and volume of PRBC transfusions were similar in both groups. However, the levels of hemoglobin (Hb) at the first and 24th hour of life were significantly higher in group 1. Phlebotomy volume was found as a statistically significant risk factor for the need for PRBC transfusion (P=0.005).

Conclusions: UCM in delivery room results in a higher Hb level in the first day of life. In these groups of infants, phlebotomy losses may impact the transfusion need.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Anemia, Neonatal / blood*
  • Anemia, Neonatal / therapy*
  • Erythrocyte Transfusion*
  • Female
  • Hemodynamics
  • Hemoglobins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature / blood*
  • Infant, Very Low Birth Weight / blood
  • Intensive Care, Neonatal / methods
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Placenta / blood supply
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / blood
  • Prospective Studies
  • Umbilical Cord*


  • Hemoglobins