Chronic inflammation in physically ill patients is often associated with the development of symptoms of depression. The mechanisms that are responsible for inflammation-associated depression have been elucidated over the last few years. Kynurenine produced from tryptophan in a reaction catabolized by indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase is transported into the brain where it is metabolized by microglial enzymes into a number of neurotropic compounds including quinolinic acid, an agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Quinolinic acid can synergize with glutamate released by activated microglia. This chain of events opens the possibility to treat inflammation-induced depression using therapies that target the transport of kynurenine through the blood-brain barrier, the production of quinolinic acid and glutamate by activated microglia, or the efflux of glutamate from the brain to the blood.