Objectives: To examine associations between habitual physical activity (PA) and changes in PA and onset of coronary heart disease (CHD) and the pathways linking PA to CHD.
Design: British Regional Heart Study population-based cohort; men completed questionnaires in 1996 and 1998 to 2000, attended rescreen in 1998 to 2000, and were followed up to June 2010.
Participants: Of 4,252 men recruited from primary care centers (77% of those invited and eligible) who were rescreened in 1998 to 2000, 3,320 were ambulatory and free from CHD, stroke, and heart failure and participated in the current study.
Measurements: Usual PA (regular walking and cycling, recreational activity and sport). Outcome was first fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction.
Results: In 3,320 ambulatory men, 303 first and 184 fatal CHD events occurred during a median of 11 years of follow-up; 9% reported no usual PA, 23% occasional PA, and 68% light or more-intense PA. PA was inversely associated with novel risk markers C-reactive protein, D-dimer, von Willebrand Factor and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Compared with no usual PA, hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD events, adjusted for age and region, were 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.34-0.79) for occasional PA, 0.47 (95% CI = 0.30-0.74) for light PA, 0.51 (95% CI = 0.32-0.82) for moderate PA, and 0.44 (95% CI = 0.29-0.65) for moderately vigorous or vigorous PA (P for linear trend = .004). Adjustment for established and novel risk markers somewhat attenuated HRs and abolished linear trends. Compared with men who remained inactive, men who maintained at least light PA had an HR for CHD events of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.53-1.02) and men whose PA level increased had an HR of 0.86 (95% CI = 0.55-1.35).
Conclusion: Even light PA was associated with significantly lower risk of CHD events in healthy older men, partly through inflammatory and hemostatic mechanisms and cardiac function (NT-proBNP).
Keywords: CHD; NT-proBNP; inflammation; older adults; physical activity; prospective cohort.
© 2014, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.