Epidemiology of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2014 Mar;100(3):145-57. doi: 10.1002/bdra.23235. Epub 2014 Mar 17.


Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is among the most common and serious sequelae of preterm birth. BPD affects at least one-quarter of infants born with birth weights less than 1500 g. The incidence of BPD increases with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Additional important risk factors include intrauterine growth restriction, sepsis, and prolonged exposure to mechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen. The diagnosis of BPD predicts multiple adverse outcomes including chronic respiratory impairment and neurodevelopmental delay. This review summarizes the diagnostic criteria, incidence, risk factors, and long-term outcomes of BPD.

Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia; chronic lung disease; epidemiology; mechanical ventilation; very low birth weight.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia* / diagnosis
  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia* / epidemiology
  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia* / etiology
  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia* / therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant, Low Birth Weight*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature*
  • Male
  • Risk Factors