The effect of atropine on prestimulatory and Lundh-meal-stimulated pancreatic secretion and on plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) levels has been studied in 20 human volunteers. Prestimulatory secretion was lowered by infusion of atropine. From 10 to 30 min after ingestion of the Lundh meal, atropine had no effect on secretion. From 30 to 120 min, the stimulated enzyme secretion was reduced by 90% during infusion of atropine. Plasma CCK levels were not altered by atropine. Similar results were obtained when the test meal was instilled into the duodenum to exclude a delay of gastric emptying caused by atropine. These data show that cholinergic blockade does not interfere with CCK-mediated stimulation of pancreatic secretion during the first 30 min after ingestion of a meal, and that afterwards the intestinal phase is mainly under cholinergic control.