Age-related pharmacokinetic changes of acetaminophen, antipyrine, diazepam, diphenhydramine, and ofloxacin in male cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs

Xenobiotica. 2014 Oct;44(10):893-901. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2014.903532. Epub 2014 Mar 21.


1. The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen (marker of gastric emptying), antipyrine (marker of hepatic metabolic activity and total body water), diazepam (lipophilic and highly distributed), diphenhydramine (hepatic blood flow-limited and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein bound) and ofloxacin (renally eliminated) were evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys (3-18 years old) and beagle dogs (2-11 years old) as models in elderly persons. 2. Gastric pH fluctuated with aging in monkeys and dogs. The concentration of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein appeared to be increased by aging. There were no age-related differences in the absorption rates of the drugs under the conditions used in the study. Total body fat increased and water decreased in monkeys, but these parameters did not change in dogs. 3. Hepatic blood flow decreased in both species, but a significant decrease of hepatic clearance was only seen in monkeys. Renal clearance decreased significantly with age in monkeys and showed a tendency to decrease in dogs. 4. Age-related alterations of physiological parameters in monkeys are in agreement with clinical observations in humans, except for the lack of a change in the plasma albumin concentration. Therefore, this study suggests that monkey might be a suitable animal model for prediction of age-related changes in pharmacokinetics in humans.

Keywords: Concentration of plasma protein; gastric emptying; gastric pH; hepatic blood flow; hepatic metabolism; protein binding; renal elimination; species comparison.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetaminophen / pharmacokinetics*
  • Age Factors
  • Aging / metabolism*
  • Albumins / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Antipyrine / pharmacokinetics*
  • Blood Proteins / metabolism
  • Diazepam / pharmacokinetics*
  • Diphenhydramine / pharmacokinetics*
  • Dogs
  • Gastric Juice / chemistry
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Male
  • Models, Animal
  • Ofloxacin / pharmacokinetics*


  • Albumins
  • Blood Proteins
  • Acetaminophen
  • Diphenhydramine
  • Ofloxacin
  • Diazepam
  • Antipyrine