Background: The development of immunosuppressive techniques has helped overcome the ABO incompatibility barrier. However, the outcomes of ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation remain a controversial issue with the advent of the anti-CD20 chimeric antibody rituximab. Herein, we report the outcomes of ABOi kidney transplantation with low-dose rituximab.
Patients and methods: Between June 2006 and April 2013, 42 patients underwent living-related kidney transplantation at our hospital. The patients were divided into 2 groups: ABO-compatible (ABOc; n = 29) and ABOi kidney transplants using low-dose rituximab (100 mg/m(2)) without splenectomy (n = 13). The basic immunosuppression regimen (calcineurin inhibitor [CNI], mycophenolate mofetil [MMF], and steroids) was the same for both groups, except for the use of rituximab and therapeutic apheresis in the ABOi group. We compared post-transplantation renal function, incidents of virus infection, episodes of rejection, and graft survival between the 2 groups.
Results: In our hospital, 30% of recipients received ABOi kidney transplants. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) did not differ between the groups. Rejection episodes confirmed by biopsy in the ABOc and ABOi groups were 8 (28%) and 4 (31%) patients (P = .833), acute antibody-mediated rejection was observed in 1 (3.5%) and 2 (15%) patients (P = .165), and virus infection was observed in 14 (48%) and 3 (23%) patients (P = .252), respectively. The 5-year patient survival rate was 100% in both groups, and the 5-year graft survival rates were 95% for ABOc and 100% for ABOi transplants (P = .527).
Conclusions: These results suggest that the outcomes of ABOi kidney transplantation with low-dose rituximab are similar to those of ABOc kidney transplantation. Further study is necessary to address the efficacy and safety of ABOi kidney transplantation.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.