Translation and validation of the Chinese Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule

Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2014 Mar;13(1):5-11. doi: 10.1177/1534734614521233.


The objectives of the study were to translate the Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule (CWIS), a disease-specific quality-of-life measure, into Chinese, and to evaluate its psychometric properties. The CWIS went through the full linguistic translation process and was evaluated in patients with current diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). Patients were categorized using the Wagner grade. Mean CWIS scores were compared between categories to evaluate the scale's ability to differentiate ulcer severity (Wagner grade). There were a total of 131 consecutive patients included in the study. Except item A22 (I am confident that the wound I have will heal), the results of item-domain correlation (r ranged from .391 to .827) and small-group analysis (critical ratio, P < .05) were satisfactory. Furthermore, the Chinese CWIS also demonstrated good criterion validity when correlated with the Short Form-36 (r = .79, P < .01). After deleting item 22, exploratory factor analysis of the items confirmed the existence of 3 hypothesized domains, physical symptoms and daily living (12 items), social life (7 items), and well-being (6 items), and totally explained 57.194% of the variance. The internal consistency of all scales of the Chinese CWIS was consistently high (Cronbach's α ranged from .789 to .929). Split-half reliability was 0.748. Sensitivity was demonstrated between patients with different etiologies of diabetic foot ulcer and those with different ulcer severity (Wagner grade). From the authors' view, the lately validated Chinese CWIS has good psychometric performance and may be appropriately used to assess the health-related quality of life of Chinese patients with DFUs.

Keywords: CWIS; Wagner grade; diabetic foot ulcers; health-related quality of life.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living / psychology
  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Attitude to Health*
  • China
  • Diabetic Foot / classification
  • Diabetic Foot / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linguistics / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Quality of Life / psychology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sickness Impact Profile*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Translating*
  • Wound Healing