Alcohol use trajectories after high school graduation among emerging adults with type 1 diabetes

J Adolesc Health. 2014 Aug;55(2):201-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.02.002. Epub 2014 Mar 21.


Objective: To explore alcohol involvement trajectories and associated factors during the year post-high school (HS) graduation among emerging adults with type 1 diabetes.

Methods: Youth (N = 181) self-reported alcohol use at baseline and every 3 months for 1 year post-HS graduation. Data were also collected on parent-youth conflict, diabetes self-efficacy, major life events, living and educational situations, diabetes management, marijuana use, cigarette smoking, and glycemic control. Trajectories of alcohol use were modeled using latent class growth analysis. Associations between trajectory class and specific salient variables were examined using analysis of variance, chi square, or generalized linear mixed model, as appropriate.

Results: Identified alcohol involvement trajectory classes were labeled as (1) consistent involvement group (n = 25, 13.8%) with stable, high use relative to other groups over the 12 months; (2) growing involvement group (n = 55, 30.4%) with increasing use throughout the 12 months; and (3) minimal involvement group (n = 101, 55.8%) with essentially no involvement until the ninth month. Those with minimal involvement had the best diabetes management and better diabetes self-efficacy than those with consistent involvement. In comparison with those minimally involved, those with growing involvement were more likely to live independently of parents; those consistently involved had more major life events; and both the growing and consistent involvement groups were more likely to have tried marijuana and cigarettes.

Conclusions: This sample of emerging adults with type 1 diabetes has three unique patterns of alcohol use during the first year after HS.

Keywords: Alcohol involvement; Diabetes; Emerging adults.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology*
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Causality
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Cohort Studies
  • Comorbidity
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology*
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Linear Models
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk-Taking
  • Schools*
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose