Monospecific factor serum for identifying Candida tropicalis was obtained either from rabbit antiserum to heated cells of C. tropicalis M 1519 (S 96) or from antiserum to C. tropicalis IFO 1400, by adsorption with heated cells of Candida albicans serotype A, or C. albicans (A) and Candida krusei, respectively. We designated this adsorbed serum factor t serum. The monospecific factor serum reacted with 31 out of 32 strains of C. tropicalis, only when tested on heat-treated cell antigens, whereas it did not react with any of 72 strains of the six other medically important species of Candida. The morphological and physiological characteristics of the one strain of C. tropicalis that did not react with the factor t serum, designated the t- -strain, were shown to be similar to those of the type strain of C. tropicalis by most of the methods employed for identifying Candida. Therefore, cell wall mannan from the t- -strain was compared with that from several typical strains of C. tropicalis for its specificity by the precipitation reaction and also for its 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum. The results showed that these mannans are similar to each other serologically and physicochemically, suggesting that the new antigen t is not mannan. Taxonomic characterization of the t-- and several typical strains of C. tropicalis was carried out by determining the mol% G+C of their DNA and also their DNA homology. Although the mol% G+C values of four typical strains of C. tropicalis were fairly similar (35.2 to 36.2 mol% by the Tm method and 35.5 to 36.4 mol% by the HPLC method), the t- -strain had a G+C content of 44.1 (Tm) and 43.3 (HPLC) mol%. Furthermore, the DNAs of the t- -strain and the type strain of C. tropicalis showed only 18.2% relatedness. These results suggest that the antigen corresponding to serum factor t exists only in the cell wall of C. tropicalis strains, not in those of the other medically important Candida, and that the t- -strain should not be classified as C. tropicalis. In conclusion, the taxonomic value and usefulness of factor t serum is primarily for differentiating C. tropicalis from C. albicans serotype A serologically.