A simple surgical technique for closure of apical muscular ventricular septal defect

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014 Dec;148(6):2576-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.02.036. Epub 2014 Feb 14.


Objective: Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is among the most common congenital heart diseases encountered in pediatric cardiac patients. Apical muscular VSD constitutes nearly 2% of defects, which may or may not be associated with other congenital heart defects. The purpose of our study is to present our innovative and simple surgical technique using custom-made low-profile polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) single disc device for closing multiple apical muscular and isolated apical muscular VSD.

Method: Between January 2010 and July 2013, 17 patients with isolated or multiple apical muscular VSDs with or without associated heart diseases underwent operation at our institute. The apical VSD was closed using our custom-made low-profile single disc polytetrafluoroethylene device. The operative technique and the technique used to prepare the single disc device are detailed.

Results: Seventeen patients of ages ranging from 3 months to 7 years underwent operation over 3 years. One 8-month-old patient with transposition of the great arteries with multiple VSDs died after 35 days due to severe pulmonary artery hypertension and sepsis. Another newborn infant with infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection with a 4-mm apical VSD also died after 3 days because this VSD could not be identified. All other patients are doing well on follow-up.

Conclusions: The technique described by us has the advantage of apical VSD closure through the left ventricle without left ventriculotomy. Our technique is simple and cost-effective.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / adverse effects
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / instrumentation
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / mortality
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / diagnosis
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / mortality
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Septal Occluder Device
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Polytetrafluoroethylene