Weight Loss Effects From Vegetable Intake: A 12-month Randomised Controlled Trial

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul;68(7):778-85. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.39. Epub 2014 Mar 26.

Abstract

Background/objectives: Direct evidence for the effects of vegetable intake on weight loss is qualified. The study aimed to assess the effect of higher vegetable consumption on weight loss.

Subjects/methods: A single blind parallel controlled trial was conducted with 120 overweight adults (mean body mass index=29.98 kg/m(2)) randomised to two energy deficit healthy diet advice groups differing only by doubling the serving (portion) sizes of vegetables in the comparator group. Data were analysed as intention-to-treat using a linear mixed model. Spearmans rho bivariate was used to explore relationships between percentage energy from vegetables and weight loss.

Results: After 12 months, the study sample lost 6.5±5.2 kg (P<0.001 time) with no difference between groups (P>0.05 interaction). Both groups increased vegetable intake and lost weight in the first 3 months, and the change in weight was significantly correlated with higher proportions of energy consumed as vegetables (rho=-0.217, P=0.024). Fasting glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels decreased (P<0.001 time) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased (P<0.001 time), with no difference between groups. Weight loss was sustained for 12 months by both groups, but the comparator group reported greater hunger satisfaction (P=0.005).

Conclusions: Advice to consume a healthy low-energy diet leads to sustained weight loss, with reductions in cardiovascular disease risk factors regardless of an emphasis on more vegetables. In the short term, consuming a higher proportion of the dietary energy as vegetables may support a greater weight loss and the dietary pattern appears sustainable.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Body Mass Index
  • Caloric Restriction*
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Diet, Reducing*
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hunger
  • Insulin / blood
  • Intention to Treat Analysis
  • Male
  • Obesity / blood
  • Obesity / diet therapy*
  • Overweight
  • Portion Size
  • Satiation
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • Vegetables*
  • Weight Loss*

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Insulin
  • Triglycerides