Pancreatic volume and fat content might be associated with β-cell function or insulin resistance (IR). We investigated the difference in pancreatic volume and fat content between age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched normal subjects and patients with having different durations of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We compared pancreatic volume and fat parameters between 50 age- and BMI-matched normal subjects, 51 subjects with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D-new), 53 subjects with T2D <5 years (T2D<5Y), and 52 subjects with T2D ≥5 years (T2D≥5Y). Age and BMI were matched to range of ±2 years and ±0.5 kg/m(2), respectively. Pancreatic volume and fat were measured by multidetector-row computed tomography with 64 detector-row scanner. The difference in Hounsfield units between pancreas and spleen (HUp-s) was investigated for fat density. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters including the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) and the insulinogenic index (IGI) were measured. Compared with normal subjects, patients with T2D had significantly smaller pancreatic volume, greater pancreatic fat, and lower HUp-s. Among the groups with T2D, pancreatic volume decreased and pancreatic fat percentage and HUp-s increased from the T2D-new to the T2D<5Y and T2D>5Y groups. Pancreatic volume and fat and HUp-s values were associated with HbA1c and triglyceride levels. Pancreatic volume was correlated with IGI while pancreatic fat and HUp-s values were correlated with HOMA-IR. The current study suggests that pancreatic volume and fat deposition might be associated with the development and progression of T2D in Korean subjects.