Background: Spinal cord involvement is not common, but can be seen in neuro-Behçet's syndrome (NBS). The major site of involvement is the cervical spinal cord with the myelitis-like inflammatory lesions continuing more than two segments, and extending to the brainstem.
Case: A 30-year-old male patient who has been followed with a diagnosis of Behçet's syndrome admitted to our neurology department clinically and radiologically suggestive of recurrent and extensive longitudinal myelitis. His anti-aquaporine antibody was negative. Because of insufficient effect of azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, and corticosteroids, infliximab was started. His clinical and radiological status is stationary for 3 years under infliximab treatment.
Discussion: Myelitis such as that occurring in our patient may have a similar presentation like neuromyelitis optica (NMO), which should therefore be included in differential diagnosis. Myelitis observed in both NMO and NBS shows spinal cord lesions longer than three or more vertebrae. Anti-aquaporine antibody must be evaluated in all patients presenting with longitudinal myelitis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor agent infliximab might be an alternative treatment in severe form of NBS such as myelitis.
Conclusion: In our case, successful treatment of recurrent and extensive longitudinal transverse myelitis in NBS with infliximab was demonstrated.
Keywords: Neuro-Behçet syndrome; Neuromyelitis optica.