Distinct spatiotemporal expression of ISM1 during mouse and chick development

Cell Cycle. 2014;13(10):1571-82. doi: 10.4161/cc.28494. Epub 2014 Mar 17.


Isthmin 1 (ISM1) constitutes the founder of a new family of secreted proteins characterized by the presence of 2 functional domains: thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR1) and adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins (AMOP). ISM1 was identified in the frog embryo as a member of the FGF8 synexpression group due to its expression in the brain midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) or isthmus. In zebrafish, ISM1 was described as a WNT- and NODAL-regulated gene. The function of ISM1 remains largely elusive. So far, ISM1 has been described as an angiogenesis inhibitor that has a dual function in endothelial cell survival and cell death. For a better understanding of ISM1 function, we examined its spatiotemporal distribution in mouse and chick using RT-PCR, ISH, and IHC analyses. In the mouse, ISM1 transcripts are found in tissues such as the anterior mesendoderm, paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm, MHB and trunk neural tube, as well as in the somites and dermomyotome. In the newborn and adult, ISM1 is prominently expressed in the lung and brain. In addition to its putative role during embryonic and postnatal development, ISM1 may also be important for organ homeostasis in the adult. In the chick embryo, ISM1 transcripts are strongly detected in the ear, eye, and spinal cord primordia. Remarkable differences in ISM1 spatiotemporal expression were found during mouse and chick development, despite the high homology of ISM1 orthologs in these species.

Keywords: ISM1; adult; chick; embryo; mouse; newborn.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Chick Embryo
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Mesoderm / embryology
  • Mesoderm / growth & development
  • Mesoderm / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Organ Specificity
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Proteins / metabolism


  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Proteins
  • isthmin protein, mouse