Purpose: Endogenous anterior uveitis (AU), when untreated, may lead to vision loss. This study compared the safety and efficacy of difluprednate versus prednisolone acetate for the treatment of this condition.
Methods: This phase III, double-masked, noninferiority study randomized patients with mild to moderate endogenous AU to receive difluprednate 0.05% (n = 56) four times daily, alternating with vehicle four times daily, or prednisolone acetate 1% (n = 54) eight times daily. The 14-day treatment period was followed by a 14-day dose-tapering period and a 14-day observation period. The primary efficacy end point was change in anterior chamber cell grade (range, 0 for ≤1 cell to 4 for >50 cells) from baseline to day 14.
Results: At day 14, the mean change in anterior chamber cell grade with difluprednate was noninferior to that with prednisolone acetate (-2.2 vs. -2.0, P = 0.16). The proportions of difluprednate-treated patients versus prednisolone acetate-treated patients demonstrating complete clearing of anterior chamber cells at day 3 were 13.0% vs. 2.1% (P = 0.046) and at day 21 were 73.9% vs. 63.8% (P = 0.013). A significant between-group difference in the mean IOP increase was seen at day 3 (2.5 mm Hg for difluprednate-treated patients and 0.1 mm Hg for prednisolone acetate-treated patients, P = 0.0013) but not at other time points. The mean IOP values in both groups remained less than 21 mm Hg throughout the study.
Conclusions: Difluprednate 0.05% four times daily is well tolerated and is noninferior to prednisolone acetate 1% eight times daily for the treatment of endogenous AU. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01201798.).
Keywords: acute anterior uveitis; corticosteroid; difluprednate; endogenous anterior uveitis; intraocular pressure; noninfectious uveitis; prednisolone; prednisolone acetate; uveitis.