SAMP8 mice have a shorter lifespan and show the dysfunction of the central nervous system. We here investigated whether soy peptides (SP) composed mainly of di- and tripeptides has the potential to prevent age-dependent cognitive impairment. SAMP8 and normal aging mice, SAMR1, were fed a diet supplemented with SP or a control diet for 26 weeks to investigate the preventive effects on the progression of cognitive decline using the Morris water maze. The SP-fed groups in SAMP8 and SAMR1 prevented the decline of cognitive ability compared to their controls. Increased expression of neurotrophic factors such as BDNF and NT-3 at mRNA and protein levels were observed in the brain of SP-fed mice, especially SAMP8. Further, the phosphorylated CREB protein level of SAMP8 was markedly up-regulated by SP feeding. These suggest that SPs have the potential for prevention of cognitive impairment via neurotrophic effects.